Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Diagnosis and Treatment by Karen E. Kim

By Karen E. Kim

Top specialists within the fields of gastroenterology, surgical procedure, and radiology comprehensively evaluation the pathophysiology, prognosis, administration, and therapy of acute bleeding issues of the GI tract. The authors holiday down acute bleeding into higher and decrease GI tract assets and supply a differential prognosis for every sickness, evidence-based algorithms for medical perform, remedy modalities for its administration, and criteria of care. The authors define the various dilemmas confronted via physicians of their method of their sufferers, akin to localization of the bleeding resource (upper vs lower), the necessity and timing for emergency endoscopy, and the timing for radiologic intervention and/or surgical procedure.

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Extra info for Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Diagnosis and Treatment (Clinical Gastroenterology)

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S Afr Med J 1978; 53: 596–597. 9. Hixson SD, Burns RP, Britt LG. Mallory-Weiss syndrome: retrospective review of eight years’ experience. South Med J 1979; 72: 1249–1251. 10. Annunziata GM, Gunasekaran TS, Berman JH, Kraut JR. Cough-induced Mallory-Weiss tear in a child. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1996; 35: 417–419. 11. Cappell MS, Sidhom O. A multicenter, multiyear study of the safety and clinical utility of esophagogastroduodenoscopy in 20 consecutive pregnant females with follow-up of fetal outcome.

There are also reported cases of CMV esophagitis causing massive GI hemorrhage necessitating emergent esophagectomy after failure of medical therapy (53). There are no reports of either acute endoscopic or angiographic treatment of this condition. OTHER VIRAL INFECTIONS Other rare viral causes of bleeding esophageal lesions include varicella zoster virus, human papillomavirus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Fig. 3) (54,55). There are reports of isolation of HIV from esophageal ulcers in infected patients (56), suggesting a pathologic role of the virus.

37. Wilmer A, Tack J, Frans E, et al. Duodenogastroesophageal reflux and esophageal mucosal injury in mechanically ventilated patients. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 1293–1299. 38. Newton M, Burnham WR, Kamm MA. Morbidity, mortality, and risk factors for esophagitis in hospital inpatients. J Clin Gastroenterol 2000; 30: 264–269. 39. Orchard JL, Stramat J, Wolfgang M, Trimpey A. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Primary role of esophagitis. Arch Fam Med 1995; 4: 30–33.

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