Advances in Nanophotonics by Pira International Ltd

By Pira International Ltd

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A plasma is formed and breaks the gas molecules into fragments, many of which become ionised in the plasma. The ionised fragments then accelerate to electrode surfaces in the discharge chamber. The main advantage of RIE is improved directionality. Directionality is important because smaller and smaller devices require deeper and deeper etching. Deep RIE is a highly anisotropic process that is used to fabricate microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) plus 2D and 3D photonic crystals. Page 28 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Advances in Nanophotonics Nanophotonics in manufacturing Electron beams 3 An electron beam is produced from an electron gun in a high-vacuum environment.

In future, nanophotonic manufacturing will create components using a variant of nanoimprint lithography (NIL), a technique similar to printing that can create nanoscale features without being constrained by the limitations of optical lithography.  Nanolasers: nanophotonics offers a way to build cheap, high-performance lasers that do not need cooling. There are cheaper ways of building uncooled lasers for telecom using more conventional technology.  Interconnections: the biggest opportunity will be interconnections between components on a board and between one board and another.

Page 40 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Advances in Nanophotonics Applications of nanophotonics 4 Doped fibre amplifiers Doped fibre amplifiers use a doped optical fibre as a gain medium to amplify an optical signal. They are related to fibre lasers. The signal is amplified by interaction with the doping ions. The input signal and a pump wavelength are multiplexed into the doped fibre. Nanocrystal optical amplifiers Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed an optical amplifier and laser based on semiconductor nanocrystal solids.

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