By Chih Ted Yang, Lawrence K. Wang
This e-book, Advances in Water assets Engineering, quantity 14, covers the subjects on watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, built-in simulation of interactive floor water and groundwater structures, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment shipping, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial methods, minimal strength dissipation fee idea and functions, hydraulic modeling improvement and alertness, geophysical equipment for review of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland components by way of rainfall and overland move, geofluvial modeling methodologies and functions, and environmental water engineering glossary.
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5) where Kzus saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity of the topsoil (m/s) θus saturated volumetric water content of the topsoil (m3/m3) βk determined by the grain composition of the soil hu thickness of the topsoil layer (m) au and bu matric potential coefficients of the topsoil. To calculate the variation of θu, all the contributing processes are simulated. The redistribution of soil water, that is, the exchange of water between the two layers, is calculated following the unsaturated soil hydrodynamics.
The simulation of soil erosion process here is based on the rain-runoff simulation results that inevitably bring errors into the soil erosion simulation. This is approved by the fact that most of the simulation errors of sediment discharge and flow discharge have the same tendencies. Moreover, errors from the simulations of gravitational erosion, flow routing, and sediment transport also contribute to the errors of simulated sediment concentrations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy of sediment discharge depends on all the modules of water and sediment movement processes and their hybrids in a watershed.
In general, the simulated sediment runoff had the same order of magnitude as the field data, and the simulated daily sediment load matched the trend of the field processes. Nevertheless, there were still discrepancies between the simulated values and the observed ones based on the available data. Three possible reasons are proposed 36 G. Wang et al. Fig. 80 Fig. 25 Flow discharge and sediment load at Longmen station in 1977  1 Watershed Sediment Dynamics and Modeling 37 here. First, it is somewhat difficult to calibrate and verify the distributed parameters for such a large watershed.