Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy by K. Siegbahn

By K. Siegbahn

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I 25 determines the coefficients. With this method it is possible to analyse complex spectra. 53 We refer the reader for this method to the article of Katz and Penfold . When one is very careful, the energy can be determined with an accuracy of about 5 %. INTERACTION OF oc-PARTICLES The electromagnetic interaction of α-particles with matter is similar to that of electrons of same kinetic energy with regard to scattering, but to such of same velocity with regard to energy loss. Therefore the behaviour is mainly determined by the energy loss.

Elec­ trons can be captured and lost. The most important process is He+ ^ He++ + e~ where we can define a mean free path Ac for capture and another, λ ι , for loss of an electron. They are strong functions of the particle velocity. Table 8 gives some values TABLE 8 64 and 760 m m H g as a function M e a n free path for capture and loss of electrons X and λι in air at 15°C c 9 of velocity v. 133 ! 0 ! 500 64 6 5by Rutherford 2 66 for A Cand λ \ in air at 15°C and 760 mm Hg, as found . 67 have been done by Bohr , Bethe , Brunnings et al.

88. H . R. H u l m e , J. M c D o u g a l l , R. A . Buckingham a n d R. H . Fowler, Proc. R o y . S o c . ( L o n d o n ) A 1 4 9 (1935) 131. C H . II 43 INTERACTION OF y-RADIATION W I T H MATTER TABLE 2 24 b2y P r a t t Photoelectric absorption coefficients for15 the Κ shell obtained H u l m e et al. 61 the atom and uses plane waves for the wave function of the photoelectron, and neglecting the binding of the Κ electrons Heitler * obtained 5 4 2 T = φο Ζ α 2* (mc /hvf . (11) A K 2 2 2 Here τκ in the α is the cross section in units of cm /atom for photoelectric absorption 2 2 atom with atomic number Ζ, ç>o=frcro with ro=e /mc 9 Κ shell of an α = ϊ| 7= 2ne /hc9 mc is the electron rest mass energy, and hv is the energy of the incident 16 photon.

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