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Bull. Assoc. Tech. Marit. Aeronaut. 45, 369–378. , McMullan, D. A. (eds, 2004). “Sir Charles Oatley and the scanning electron microscope”, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. W. Hawkes, editor-in-chief), Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, London. N. (1965) “Selective ion beam etching in the scanning electron microscope”. PhD Dissertation, University of Cambridge. 1 The Early Development of the Scanning Electron Microscope 23 Bruining, H. H. (1938) Secondary emission. Physica (Amsterdam) 5, 17–30. , (1938) The Monoscope.
In 1935, however, Irwin Knoll pioneered a new approach where the properties of the specimen were not imaged directly in space but were instead sampled in time by a small beam of electrons that sequentially illuminated one point on the object at a time. The final image was built up from a time-sequence of data, and was displayed by a second electron beam on a cathode ray tube (CRT). The two beams swept in synchrony in a rectangular pattern, or raster, over both the specimen and the CRT. The brightness of the beam in the CRT was made proportional to the intensity of some signal generated by the beam striking the specimen, and the magnification was the ratio of the dimensions of the two rasters (Knoll 1935) (see Fig.
Radio Engrs. 30, 255. , Hillier, J. W. (1945) “Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope”, Wiley, New York. Chapter 2 LVSEM for Biology James B. Pawley Key words: low voltage, high-resolution, scanning electron microscopy, radiation damage Introduction1 Two Approaches to Microscopical Imaging Early methods of microscopical imaging involved the use of lenses to focus and magnify the pattern of light transmitted, refracted, or reflected by the specimen. Contrast in the final image depended on the extent to which the features of the specimen absorbed, refracted, or reflected the light.