By John Edward Cantle (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
8) Cleaning the furnace. The selection and optimisation of furnace operating conditions will be dealt with in more detail in section VIIA of the next chapter (page 57). Electrothermal techniques are very sensitive, as already noted. 44 absorbance at 217nm (flame AAS). e. a thousand-fold lower in concentration. However, furnace atomic absorption has certain disadvantages. The flame is more precise, faster and much lcss trouble and should always be used if sensitivity is adequate. The electrothermal method takes longer and requires more skill.
Some examples of often-used solvents are p-xylene, n-heptane, cyclohexane, 10% isopropanol-white spirit mixture, methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl ethyl ketone and cyclohexanone. H. and Hopkin 8z Williams, as well as from specialised oil-standard organisations such as Conostan. C. Inorganic solids Typically, these will be alloys, rocks, fertilisers, ceramics, etc. g. using lithium metaborate), Teflon bomb dissolution. Fusion and ‘bomb’ methods are usually reserved for complex siliceous materials, traditionally reluctant to yield t o solubilisation.
The sample under examination is reduced, generally by stannous chloride and hydrochloric acid, and the vapour swept into the light path of a mercury hollow cathode lamp. Most commonly a closed loop system is employed where an electric pump circulates the mercury vapour, and atomic absorption measurements are made using a quartz-ended gas cell in the light path. In the former case, that of hydride generation, the evolved gas is swept to 25 the atomiser by a stream of argon, nitrogen or air depending upon the type of atomiser employed.