By Zoeb Hussian, Zulkifly Abdullah, Zanial Alimuddin
Following a concise evaluate of fluid mechanics trained by way of a variety of engineering functions and examples, this reference offers and analyzes significant different types of fluid equipment and the key sessions of generators, in addition to pump expertise. It bargains pros and scholars in hydraulic engineering with historical past innovations in addition to sensible assurance of contemporary turbine applied sciences, totally explaining some great benefits of either steam and gasoline generators. Description, layout, and operational info for the Pelton, Francis, Propeller, and Kaplan generators are supplied, as are outlines of varied different types of energy crops. It offers solved examples, bankruptcy difficulties, and an intensive case study.
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The pump draws water from a sump at A through alSO mm diameter pipe . The pump is located at B at a height 2 m above the level of the sump. 31 m/s and jet diameter 75 mm. Determine the flow rate from the nozzle and the power required to drive the pump. B 2m Fig. 21 Fire engine pump installation. 0366 1113/S Applying Bernoullis equation between points A and C 2 ? V PJ\;" Pc Vc + +z = + +zc-H Y 2g A Y 2g At the free surface of the slimp, the pressure is atmospheric so that PA = 0, the velocity V i\ is also zero as the slimp is considered very large and A can be taken as datum so that ZA = 0 also Pc = atmospheric pressure = 0, the head developed by the pump is Hp , substituting proper values in the equation vi.
11. 22) T Turbine is power producing machine and therefore head developed is positive (H r). 11 Turbine installation. 6 Flow Measurement Vellturimeter Bernoullis equation can be applied to measure flow rate in a pipe by venturimeter. The venturimeter has three important portions: a converging part, constant. area (throat) and a diverging part as shown in the Fig. 12. 36 Basic Fluids Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines t i ~---~ D ......................................................................
Control~ volume ~ 1______ _ (a) '- , '- / / '- / , / / 'Y / A " , / ,, ' Stationary plate, inclined to jet, angle (gOD_U) // 0 volume (b) (e) Fig. 3 Jet striking a plate. 27 28 Basic Fluids Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines A control volume enclosing the jet and the plate may be established. This control volume being fixed relative to the plate and is therefore moving with it. The components of velocities perpendicular to the plate are considered. In cases where the plate is moving, the most helpful technique is to reduce the plate and associated volume to rest by superimposing on the system equal and opposite plate velocity.