By Rob Peters (auth.)
` an extraordinary publication mendacity on the interface among ecology and palaeoecology that merits a spot within the forests component to your library.'
The Holocene, 8:4 (1998)
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` an extraordinary e-book mendacity on the interface among ecology and palaeoecology that merits a spot within the forests component of your library. 'The Holocene, 8:4 (1998)
Extra resources for Beech Forests
Cyclones in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. 5 latitude and longitude during August 1884-1953 (Arakawa, 1969). Beech ranges are shaded. 0 44 CHAPTER 4 Rijkoort, 1983). More local and shorter lasting events are tornadoes and thunderstorms. A tornado is a rapidly rotating vortex of air protruding as a funnel to the ground. Usually, tornadoes last shorter than half an hour, have a path length of less than 100 km, and have wind speeds of more than 110 m/s (Bryant, 1991). 4). 4. Mean annual incidence of tornadoes per 26000 km2 (1955-1967) in the region of American beech forests along Fagus grandifolia (Bryson & Hare, 1974).
Around 7000 years BP Fagus reached its present geographic range, but continued to spread at low rates (Bennett, 1985). In some areas spread still continues until today (Davis, 1981). In Michigan and Wisconsin, Woods and Davis (1989) have shown that expansion took place from 7000 to 5000 years BP and from 3000 to 2500 years BP, while the other periods were stable. These variations in the rates of range expansion were primarily due to environmental limitations, and American beech has been in approximate equilibrium with the environment for most of the last 5000 years.
The expansion of Fagus was not limited by climatic conditions, and, during the second half of the Holocene, it became more and more affected by human interference. During the Early Holocene, Fagus and Abies expanded their range rather slowly, which was due to a slow spread rate and not because of climatic conditions (Tall is, 1991). Tilia and Ulmus, for example, showed a quick spread. In present-day England, Fagus is not yet in equilibrium with climatic conditions (Birks, 1989). In Europe, natural spread has been obscured by human interference which favored beech (Huntley & Birks, 1983).