By J. C. A. Stagg
In reading how the USA received regulate over the northern borderlands of Spanish the US, this paintings reassesses the international relations of President James Madison. Historians have assumed Madison’s rationale in sending brokers into the Spanish borderlands among 1810 and 1813 used to be to subvert Spanish rule, yet J. C. A. Stagg argues that his actual cause was once to discover peaceable and felony resolutions to long-standing disputes over the bounds of Louisiana at a time whilst the Spanish-American empire was once within the technique of dissolution. Drawing on an array of yank, British, French, and Spanish resources, the writer describes how a myriad forged of neighborhood leaders, officers, and different small avid gamers affected the borderlands international relations among the United States and Spain, and he casts new gentle on Madison’s contribution to early American expansionism. (20100301)
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Extra info for Borderlines in Borderlands: James Madison and the Spanish-American Frontier, 1776-1821 (The Lamar Series in Western History)
40 If Madison worried about a settlement based on the uti possidetis of 1781 —which could have left New York, South Carolina, and Georgia, to say nothing of Canada and East Florida, in British hands—it was not for long. The battle of Yorktown in October 1781 ended the war in North America, without Spain making a treaty with Congress. That situation left France and the United States, as principals in the 1778 alliance, free to negotiate with Great Britain without the United States having to deal directly with the conditions that bound France in its 1779 treaty with Spain, namely that A TROUBLESOME NEIGHBOR France would support Spain’s territorial position in America and in Central America as well as its demands for Gibraltar and Minorca.
82 These matters came to a head in 1794 when Washington, to avert the A TROUBLESOME NEIGHBOR possibility of a rupture, sent an extraordinary mission to Madrid, entrusting it to Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina. The chances for its success did not at ﬁrst seem promising, but developments resulting from the French Revolution, in both Europe and America, created pressures that led Spain to reconsider its stance toward the United States. The execution of Louis XVI in January 1793 dissolved the Family Compact between the French and Spanish Bourbons and replaced it with an Anglo-Spanish alliance that proved to be a disaster for Madrid.
32 Moreover, within a few weeks of reafﬁrming the instructions Madison had defended in October 1780, Congress abandoned them, in part because of pressure from the delegates of South Carolina and Georgia, who feared that diplomatic maneuvers by the European powers following the formation of the League of Armed Neutrality in 1780 might lead to a mediated peace on the basis of the uti possidetis. 33 Madison opposed this retreat. ”34 Yet Madison hardly suspected at this stage that it might be Spain’s policy to divide Congress.