By Institution of Civil Engineers, Highways Agency, International Association for Bridge Maintenance, Parag C. Das, Dan M. Frangopol
The establishment of Civil Engineers has organised a chain of meetings to rejoice, before everything of the recent Millennium, the large achievements made within the box of bridge engineering in recent times.
This quantity of papers from the second one of those meetings, held in Hong Kong, encompasses the state of the art in bridge layout, development, upkeep and defense evaluation. It contains papers on significant bridge schemes, either accomplished and less than development, and on cutting edge ways utilized in a variety of components of the realm.
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The cables are arranged in a semifan configuration. The bridge deck consists of twin box concrete girders in the side spans and 24m into the main span and, and twin box steel girders in the remainder of the main span. The two boxes are interconnected with lateral members. Fig. 13 - A View from under side of the bridge of the Winning Scheme The designer came up with a bold yet simple scheme - a record span cable stayed bridge with two single tapered cylindrical pylons. The use of a steel top tower section would not only enable rapid construction but also create a sense of a "modern-look" for the bridge which is to be built in the twenty first century.
The presence of water, sometimes also with chlorides in the grout, is reported in 13% of the 281 bridges. Many of these are connected with corrosion classified as moderate or more. Most of the 13% have voids present in the ducts, a factor that arguably assists in water movement and suggests the potential for future deterioration. In terms of overall condition, 3% of bridges are classified as having significant defects and a further 4% as needing attention. Over 50% are classified as being in good condition with the balance having minor problems.
Fatigue failure life of hanger piece joints plotted against the equivalent nominal bending stress range do not satisfy the class G fatigue design curve recommended by JSSC  in the low stress region. Fatigue failure life of patch plate joints plotted against the equivalent nominal bending stress range satisfies the class E fatigue design curve with a sufficient margin in the low stress region, which is one rank higher than the class F recommended by JSSC . 4. Conclusions The principal results obtained through this study were as follows: (1) Fatigue failure life of web gusset joints and patch plate joints plotted against the equivalent nominal principal stress range satisfies the one rank higher fatigue class recommended by JSSC.