Delta-Sigma A/D-Converters: Practical Design for by Richard Gaggl

By Richard Gaggl

The emphasis of this e-book is on sensible layout points for broadband A/D converters for verbal exchange platforms. The embedded designs are hired for transceivers within the box of ADSL suggestions and WLAN functions. a space- and power-efficient cognizance of a converter is vital to stay aggressive out there. the proper selection for the converter topology and structure has to be performed very conscientiously to bring about a aggressive FOM. The ebook starts off with a quick assessment of uncomplicated strategies approximately ADSL and WLAN to appreciate the ADC necessities. At architectural point, matters on diversified modulator topologies are mentioned applying the supplied know-how node. The layout matters are mentioned intimately for contemporary electronic CMOS applied sciences, starting with 180nm through 130nm and happening to 65nm characteristic measurement. Beside sensible facets, demanding situations to mixed-signal layout point are addressed to optimize the converters when it comes to ate up chip quarter, strength intake and layout for prime yield in quantity construction. hence, cautious issues on circuit- and architectural- point are played via introducing a dynamic-biasing procedure, a feed-forward technique and a answer in time rather than amplitude resolution.

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A common approach for mismatch shaping is the so called Dynamic Element Matching (DEM). As with noise shaping, the effectiveness of mismatch shaping increases with higher OSR. 2 Cascaded-Loop Modulator Another way of achieving high resolution, which eases the stability problems associated with high-order modulators, is the approach of cascading of several modulator stages. These types are called Multi-stAge noise-SHaping (MASH) or cascadedloop modulators. The basic concept is shown in Fig. 12. The output signal of the first delta-sigma stage is given by Y1 (z) = STF 1 (z) · X(z) + NTF 1 · E1 (z).

Particularly, the delta-sigma converter is mainly analyzed in the frequency domain since it follows the principle of a noise-shaping converter. The calculation or estimation of the output power spectrum is done by the method of discrete Fourier transform, which in turn can be efficiently computed by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). In this book, for the estimation of the power spectrum standard MATLAB functions will be employed as shown in later chapters. Beside the shape of the calculated spectrum two major quantitative measures exist for expressing the linearity.

Any possible implementation of a feedback D/A-converter is not shown here to keep the presentiveness. Vi and Vo represents the input and output voltage, CS and CI the sampling and integration capacitors, respectively. In order to obtain an accurate model, it is very important to include the parasitic capacitances CP and CL associated with the input and output capacitances of the Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA). CL also includes the bottom plate parasitic of CI . CSn is included to model the sampling operation of the next stage, whereby the top plate of CSn is connected to a perfect virtual ground during both clock phases.

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